Interestingly, this concept of highly intense pulsed power is not a new concept. There are established researchers in the USA working on high current, high voltage, short pulse devices. There are two such projects in the US presently. One is called the “Atlas Pulsed Power” device.
My research about the Atlas device indicates that it creates compressive forces which can be used to simulate those in a “nuclear fusion weapon”. A study of the Atlas project shows the parallelism between the Atlas device and the Proton21 work in respect the pulsed power application.
There is a similar project, called the “Z machine”, which uses a “pulsed power” to collapse a set of wires on themselves. This effort is called the Z machine. Its titular use is also for weapons/fusion research.
Both the Atlas and the Z machine achieve incredible internal pressures. In essence there is NO difference between these devices, and the concept of using what is known as the Lorenz force which brings the target matter to a focus. The primary technical difference between Proton 21’s work and the work at the Atlas and Z machines is that the research groups running the latter devices never check for neither isotope transformations nor transmutation of elements involved in the compression reactions. I have this by personal communication with the project director of the Z machine, in March of 2007. It is also interesting to note that after a “material change out” in the Z machine, a jump of the “observed temperature” of the pulse, by a factor of almost a thousand was observed. It
Is my contention that they “accidentally” obtained the same
“self consistent” collapse of Proton21, but as noted above, in regard to
materials analysis, they have done nothing to allow them to “see the evidence”
of the result of this self consistent collapse.
Here is a detail on that "Jump" in pulse temperature caused by a simple material changeout:
(Website with announcement of 2 billion degree result, “Hotter than the Stars”…)
I also infer this from the public information available on the Atlas website as to the goals of the Atlas project, which are purely centered around generating large compressive impulse forces, that such effects as transmutations or isotope changes have not been sought or observed. Both projects are regarded as “physics” experiments, and no “chemistry” is investigated. Had they performed chemical analysis they probably would have discovered evidence of transmutation of elements and isotope shift. . Because nuclear transmutations are not expected, by theory, they have had nothing driving them to check for nuclear reaction evidence.
In contrast the Proton 21 group had a hypothesis that with the discharge geometry they used, the tip of their copper electrodes, would achieve a transitory collapse of the Copper atoms by a volume factor of thousands to 1. They suspected that such a collapse would result in massive numbers of “nuclear transmutations” and perhaps even the creation of “super heavy nuclei”.
Thus the goal of Proton21 was not to achieve “arcs and sparks” as mentioned on the Z machine web page. (And as a by product, simulation of the hydrogen bomb operation on a controlled, small scale.), but rather Proton21 had a practical goal of checking for evidence of nuclear transmutation and other “by-products” induced by the “matter collapse”. They did do such observations and found they had achieved observable transmutations of elements and isotope shifts.
Recommended for understanding the concept of
To prove this, they conducted detailed examination of the “residuals” spread about a copper mesh mounting “tray” used for holding on of the two electrodes used in the tests. They found every element of the periodic table (except such the gasses produced such as chlorine, bromine, etc. as this work is performed in a vacuum chamber and such gasses would be evacuated on formation) on the sample trays using a method called “X ray Fluorescence”. By 2004 this had been done over 5000 times with their first generation test device.
More importantly, they also found evidence of the creation of significant amounts of “Super Heavy Nuclei”, using a method called “Mass Spectroscopy”.
When we talk of “super heavy nuclei” in significant amounts we
are speaking of evidence of 10^19 (That is a number 1 followed by 19 zeros) of actual
S.H.N’s being formed by one blast. . With a Mass Spectroscopy device one can
determine the actual number of neutrons and protons in the nuclei of samples
put into the mass spec device. A link to
a Wikipedia write up on Mass Spectroscopy devices is given here:
The data on these findings are on the Proton21 website (www.proton21.com.ua) in a condensed, fairly direct form. The complete results of 6 years worth of work are detailed in a book: Controlled Nucleo-synthesis, Breakthroughs in Experiment and Theory, Published Fall 2007,Dordrecht, the Netherlands ISBN: 978-1-4020-5873-8.
This author visited the Proton21 facility, in June of 2005. A week was spent at the Proton21 laboratory discussing the results of their work.
One key discovery of their efforts
was that although, their single pulses put approximately 500 to 1000 joules of
energy into their copper test electrodes, the resultant plasma flash was
observed to produce roughly 50,000
joules of energy. This would mean a 50,000/1000 or 50 to 1 net energy gain.
This net gain is believed to occur as a result of a combination of “spontaneous
fissions” of the created Super Heavy Nuclei’s and “internal conversions” to
antimatter and subsequent annihilation with normal matter. Both these processes
liberate large amount of energy from small amounts of matter. This is the
essence of the direct matter to energy conversion observed by Proton21.
The Ukrainian construction company
which originally funded the work, stopped funding in mid -2006. Aside from literally
“keeping the lights on” and completing the work to publish their book on the research
effort, progress was halted at Proton21 as of 2007. However, there has been indication that as of 2008 new funding was found, and Proton21 is continuing their work.
It appears that the current funding source desires them to be somewhat more "covert" in the nature of their progress.
In the next Blog entry, we will discuss potential "cost effective" pulse power sources which could lead to PRACTICAL power producing devices using the Proton21 discoveries.